JD Rockefeller Andrew Carnegie JP Morgan
Although some economists place the industrial "take-off" of America in the years before the Civil War, it was in the three decades following that great conflict that the United States became the world's leading industrial power. A fortunate combination of sufficient raw materials, adequate labor, enviable technological accomplishments, effective business leadership, nationwide markets, and supportive state and national governments boosted America past its international rivals. The industrial transformation had a profound impact on the lives of the millions of workers who made the production revolution possible. Some who were distrustful of industrial power turned toward socialism; others tried to organize workers into powerful unions. But, in these early years of industrial conflict, the forces of business usually triumphed.
Brinkley, Alan (2007). American history: A survey. New York, New York: McGraw Hill.
An Industrial Society: 1870-1910
1872-74 The great buffalo slaughter on the Great Plains.
1873 San Francisco builds first cable car line. Women's Christian Temperance Union founded. Comstock Law passed.
1874 Black Hills gold rush begins.
1876 Custer's defeat at the Battle of Little Bighorn. Johns Hopkins University opens nation's first graduate school.
1878 Yellow fever epidemic in Memphis.
1879 Henry George publishes Progress and Poverty. Mary Baker Eddy founds the Church of Christ, Scientist.
1881 Booker T. Washington founds the Tuskegee Institute.
1882 Congress passes Chinese Exclusion Act.
1883 Supreme Court rules Civil Rights Act of 1875 unenforceable. Brooklyn Bridge completed.
1885 William Dean Howells publishes The Rise of Silas Lapham. World?s first skyscraper, the Home Life Insurance Building, built in Chicago.
1886 Haymarket Affair fuels nativism.
1887 Dawes Severalty Act passed. American Protective Association founded.
1888 First electrified streetcar system begins operation in Richmond, Virginia.
Edward Bellamy publishes Looking Backward.
1890 Jacob Riis publishes How the Other Half Lives.
1893 New York City aqueduct completed.
1895 Booker T. Washington gives Atlanta Compromise speech.
1896 Free rural mail delivery begins. Supreme Court upholds segregation in Plessy v. Ferguson decision.
1897 Boston opens first subway line.
1898 White race riot in Wilmington, North Carolina.
1909 W. E. B. Du Bois and others found the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 1924 Citizenship conferred upon all Native Americans.
Demographic Changes: Immigration was an important source of labor during the late nineteenth century. However, the changing national origins of immigrants limited labor's
ability to organize.
Economic Transformations: As noted in Chapter 16, industrialization was a national and international phenomenon. The causes of the Industrial Revolution acted on both manufacturing and agriculture. Business consolidation changed the relationship between labor and capital.
Environment: America's explosive industrial growth created enormous demand for natural resources, and spurred the development of the West. Industrialists looked to cut costs and a major result of that was pollution in cities, as well as waste.
Reform: Labor issues are primary here. Business consolidation put the individual worker at a disadvantage, and although workers, absolute standard of living rose, their relative standard declined. Labor's search for power and position in industrial America is told through the history of the union movement.
George, J. & Brown, J. (2007). AP achiever: Advanced placement american history exam preparation guide. McGraw Hill.
The Rise of Big Business
Between the Civil War and World War I, the modern American economy emerged. A national transportation and communication network was created, the corporation became the dominant form of business organization, and a managerial revolution transformed business operations. By the beginning of the 20th century, per capita income and industrial production in the United States exceeded that of any other country except Britain. Unlike the pre-Civil War economy, this new one was dependent on raw materials from around the world and it sold goods in global markets. Business organization expanded in size and scale. There was an unparalleled increase in factory production, mechanization, and business consolidation. By the beginning of the 20th century, the major sectors of the nation's economy--banking, manufacturing, meat packing, oil refining, railroads, and steel--were dominated by a small number of giant corporations.
Around the turn of the 20th century, mass immigration from eastern and southern Europe dramatically altered the population's ethnic and religious composition. Unlike earlier immigrants, who had come from Britain, Canada, Germany, Ireland, and Scandinavia, the ?new immigrants? came increasingly from Hungary, Italy, Poland, and Russia. The newcomers were often Catholic or Jewish and two-thirds of them settled in cities. In this chapter you will learn about the new immigrants and the anti-immigrant reaction.
Biography of America
Industrial Supremacy (series14)
Steel and stockyards are featured in this program as the mighty engine of industrialism thunders forward at the end of the nineteenth century. Professor Miller continues the story of the American Industrial Revolution in New York and Chicago, looking at the lives of Andrew Carnegie, Gustavus Swift, and the countless workers in the packinghouse and on the factory floor.