Ben Franklin William Penn
After the turmoil of the late seventeenth century had subsided, it became evident that the English-American colonies and the colonists who populated them were beginning to develop characteristics that were distinctly "American." Although still essentially transplanted English subjects and still greatly influenced by European ideas and institutions, the colonists were also diverse, aggressive, and as concerned with their own success as with that of the empire of which they were part. New sources of wealth and new patterns of trade shaped the growth of the colonies, new technologies appeared, and new immigrants, not always from England, added a dimension unknown in the mother country. Although differences in geography, economy, and population gave each colony its own character and problems, there remained many common concerns not the least of which was how to deal with or avoid dealing with British mercantile restrictions. In short, between 1700 and 1750, Britain's North American colonies began to show signs of being both English and American; they were indeed "different," and it is this difference that Chapter 3 explores.
Brinkley, Alan (2007). American history: A survey. New York, New York: McGraw Hill.
1660 The Restoration brings Charles II to the throne of England. Navigation Act of 1660 steps up royal control over trade in American colonies.
1663 Founding of Carolina. Plantation Duty Act introduces customs agents into colonies.
1664 English conquest of New Netherland and founding of New York and New Jersey.
1674-96 Lords of Trade coordinate control over the colonial economy.
1675 King Philip?s War devastates New England.
1676 Nathaniel Bacon leads rebellion against royal government in Virginia.
1680 Popés Rebellion in Spanish New Mexico.
1681 William Penn founds Pennsylvania as haven for Quakers in America.
1682 La Salle plants French flag at the mouth of the Mississippi River and claims Louisiana.
1685 The Dominion of New England consolidates five New England colonies.
1687 Isaac Newton publishes Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
1688 The Glorious Revolution topples King James II and brings William and Mary to the throne.
1689 Parliamentary Declaration of Rights.
1689-97 King William?s War.
1696 England creates Board of Trade to consolidate control over colonial trade.
1699-1733 Wool Act, Hat Act, Iron Act, and Molasses Act heighten taxation and control over colonial trade and production.
Culture: Continued immigration injected various cultural streams into the American colonies; this is particularly the case with religion, where European sects joined colonial dissenters to form new denominations. Puritan New England placed a stronger emphasis on education than the southern colonies. The hubs of learning and scientific inquiry were the cities such as Cambridge, which hosted the first college in America. The Massachusetts School Act, passed in 1647, provided for public education for white Americans only.
Demographic Changes: An increasing stream of immigrants flowed to the American colonies by the end of the seventeenth century. Deteriorating conditions in mainland Europe pushed German and French Protestants to the colonies, and Scot-Irish began to replace the English as economic conditions in England improved. Most significant was the increasing stream of black laborers from Africa and the Caribbean who replaced the declining number of indentured servants. Mortality rates decreased more so in the northern colonies than in the south, and by the mid-seventeenth century New England's population was increasing naturally. The southern colonies depended on immigration to grow until the eighteenth century. The American non-Indian population doubled nearly every twenty-five years.
Economic Transformations: After the early years when survival was the first order, a thriving colonial economy developed accompanied by a growing consumer culture. Throughout English America agriculture was the dominant economic activity, and in the Carolinas rice and later indigo became important crops. The Navigation Acts were a boon to shipbuilding in New England, and other manufacturing ventures using the region's abundant water power developed there. Commercial farming in the middle colonies provided foodstuffs for New England, the Caribbean, and Europe, and the slave trade between Africa, the Caribbean, and America flourished. This all occurred in the context of a complex trading network labeled the "triangular trade." As Americans searched for markets throughout the Atlantic a more apt label would be the" Atlantic polygon."
Religion: Religion and religious intensity affected the various regions differently. The Anglican Church was most common in Virginia, but was not a commanding presence. Chesapeake Maryland's conflict between Catholics and Protestants diminished in the late seventeenth century. In New England religious declension worried many and reactions to this ran from witchcraft hysteria to religious revivals during the Great Awakening. Both point to the fact that religion played an important role in people's lives.
Slavery and Its Legacies in North America: As American society matured, the black population developed a distinct slave culture that blended both European and African tradition. The slave family grew beyond the nuclear family into an extended network of kin to provide for those left behind when families were broken up. The church and religion provided major solace, and hope for freedom-if not in this life, then in the next. Slaves also developed distinct cultural tools to help cope with slavery's harsh realities. Languages forged from a mix of African and English were both signs of comfort and religion, and still exist today in some areas.
George, J. & Brown, J. (2007). AP achiever: Advanced placement american history exam preparation guide. McGraw Hill.
England's efforts to create an empire based on mercantilist principles and the conflicts that these efforts to assert control produce. You will also learn about the forces that transformed colonial life, including an expanding population, economic stratification, the Enlightenment, and the Great Awakening.
Growth and Empire
Benjamin Franklin and Franklin's Philadelphia take center stage in this program. As the merchant class grows in the North, the economies of southern colonies are built on the shoulders of the slave trade. Professor Miller brings the American story to 1763 with the Peace of Paris and English dominance in America.