Alexander Hamilton James Madison Henry Clay
The period covered in this chapter was marked by definition and expansion. Having achieved political independence, Americans struggled to achieve cultural independence as well, and this search for self-identity touched almost every phase of the nation's life. "American" tastes in music, literature, and art developed. Religious bodies with ties to colonial ways declined as the Second Great Awakening swept America. The global process of industrialization began to have an impact in the United States while technology, unrestrained by mercantile regulations, expanded to solve problems that were particularly American. Meanwhile American politics began to take on characteristics and respond to needs with little precedent in European systems. At the center of this activity, at times leading it and at times being led, was Thomas Jefferson, a president whose versatility seemed to mirror the diversity of the nation. A pragmatic politician, Jefferson was also a committed idealist?one who deserves to be the symbol of the age that bears his name. The War of 1812 did more than test the army and navy of the United States?it tested the nation's ability to survive deep internal divisions that threatened America's independence as surely as did the forces of Great Britain. Hoping to keep his nation out of war, Jefferson followed a policy that kept the peace but raised fears among his political enemies. The rest of the nation, feeling that Britain was insulting its sovereignty, rallied to the president. In the end, these divisions, although they hampered the war effort, did not survive the conflict, and the United States entered the postwar period with a new sense of nationalism.
Brinkley, Alan (2007). American history: A survey. New York, New York: McGraw Hill.
The Fabric of Change 1800-1815
1800 France reacquires Louisiana Territory from Spain.
1801 Judiciary Act of 1801 prompts "midnight appointment" of Federalist judges.
1802 Spain closes New Orleans to American trade.
1803 President Jefferson purchases the Louisiana Territory from France.
Chief Justice John Marshall establishes judicial review in Marbury v. Madison.
1804 Jefferson is reelected president
1804-6 Lewis and Clark expedition travels to Pacific Ocean and back in two and a half years.
1806 Congress approves National Road from the Atlantic Ocean to the Mississippi River.
1807 British naval vessel attacks USS Chesapeake off the coast of Virginia.
Embargo of 1807 closes all American ports to prevent war with England.
Robert Fulton launches his steamboat, the Clermont.
1808 Congress passes the Act of Arming and Equipping the Militia to prepare for war. Secretary of the Treasury Albert Gallatin issues his "Report on the Roads and Canals." James Madison elected president.
1809 Congress passes the Non-Intercourse Act, forbidding trade with England and France.
1810 Congress passes Macon's Bill Number Two to coerce either England or France to respect neutral rights.
1811 William Henry Harrison defeats the Shawnee Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe in Indiana Territory.
1812 Responding to Madison's war message, Congress declares war against England.
1812?14 War of 1812 between the United States and England.
1814 At the Hartford Convention, Federalists voice opposition to the war.
Treaty of Ghent establishes armistice to end the War of 1812.
1815 Andrew Jackson leads Americans to victory over the British at the Battle of New Orleans.
Culture: America began to exert its cultural independence during this time. Private education flourished as republican ideology sought to produce virtuous citizens. American authors began producing a genre of national schoolbooks, dictionaries, literature, and histories.
Economic Transformations: The Republican era beginning with Jefferson marked the beginning of the first Industrial Revolution in the United States. Powered by the Northeast's fast-flowing rivers, manufacturing enterprise sprouted, particularly in textiles. In turn this spurred growth in southern agriculture and shipping. The Lowell System provided work for farm girls outside of the home.
Environment: The acquisition of Louisiana by Jefferson in 1803 had a profound impact on how Americans viewed their environment and its resources. Doubling the size of the national domain, Louisiana projected notions of abundance, expansion, and unlimited wealth. Jefferson predicted that the area would not be settled for 100 years, and together these ideas promoted waste of natural resources.
Politics and Citizenship: The Revolution of 1800 and the Republicans in office promoted a more democratic and open political system than under Federalist rule. Land remained the basis for the franchise, and Jefferson cemented one aspect of political ideology in the American mind, that large government is a threat to individual liberty.
Religion: The rationalism of the American Enlightenment was overtaken by evangelicalism during the early nineteenth century, and this became, and still remains, America's dominant religious characteristic.
War and Diplomacy: Jefferson ushered in the Republican tendency to seek solutions to international disputes through diplomacy rather than war. Nevertheless, during the Republican tenure the United States did not hesitate to use force against Indians opposing white expansion westward, and it reluctantly went to war against Great Britain and the Barbary States to uphold American honor, provide security to western settlers, and establish its credibility in the international sphere.
George, J. & Brown, J. (2007). AP achiever: Advanced placement american history exam preparation guide. McGraw Hill.
At the dawn of the nineteenth century, the size of the United States doubles with the Louisiana Purchase. The Appalachians are no longer the barrier to American migration west; the Mississippi River becomes the country's central artery; and Jefferson's vision of an Empire of Liberty begins to take shape. American historian Stephen Ambrose joins Professors Maier and Miller in examining the consequences of the Louisiana Purchase -- for the North, the South, and the history of the country.