Star Spangle Banner War of 1812
After the War of 1812 a new spirit of nationalism and expansion swept the nation. Party and sectional divisions fell by the wayside during the era of good feelings with a president who was determined to heal old wounds, but this spirit of unity did not last. Sectional tensions reappeared during the Missouri debates, which brought the issue of slavery and its expansion to the forefront. The immediate question, of which section would control the Senate, found resolution through the Missouri Compromise, but the underlying problem proved more difficult to settle. The Missouri debates revealed that some of the nation saw the addition of slave states as a threat to the Union as southern politicians (and many of their northern counterparts) had come to equate the expansion of slavery with the expansion of southern political power. Divisions within the Republican Party led to the appearance of a new two-party system, which temporarily seemed to overshadow sectional concerns. With the election of Andrew Jackson to the presidency in 1828, the nation again seemed concerned more with unity than division. How long this would last was another question.
Brinkley, Alan (2007). American history: A survey. New York, New York: McGraw Hill.
A New Epoch 1815-1828
1802 U.S. Military Academy established at West Point, New York.
1811 Charter of the First Bank of the United States expires.
1816 Second Bank of the United States chartered. Tariff of 1816 establishes protection for American manufacturers.
1817 President Madison vetoes the Bonus Bill, which funded internal improvements.
1818 Anglo-American Convention draws boundary with Canada and establishes joint American and British control over Oregon Territory.
1819 Panic of 1819. U.S. acquires Florida in Transcontinental Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty).
1820 Missouri Compromise.1821 Spanish Claims Commission reimburses American creditors and spurs industrialization.
1823 Monroe Doctrine warns European powers to leave the Western Hemisphere alone.
1824 Presidential election with four sectional candidates results in deadlock.
House of Representatives elects John Quincy Adams president.
General Survey Act provides federal support for westward expansion.
American Identity: This period ushered in explosive growth westward and shaped the expansionist character that Americans espoused throughout the nineteenth century. Distinct sectional development threatened but did not overpower strong nationalist forces.
Demographic Changes: The irony of American development in this period and over the course of its history is that as the United States acquired more land and its population migrated to the vast agricultural regions of the West and the South, the nation was becoming more urban and industrialized.
Economic Transformations: The factory system took shape during this era using the Lowell System as a model. National policy lent support with internal improvements and a protective tariff. The country was shifting its support to Hamilton's vision for America.
Environment: Particularly in the cotton culture of the South abundance and waste went together. As cotton and tobacco depleted soils in the Old South, westward migration of the plantation system followed. Population growth fostered the opening up of new land throughout the country.
Slavery and Its Legacies in North America: Not since the debates in the Constitutional Convention had slavery been so contentious an issue. The Missouri Compromise exposed issues of federal versus state power, regional lifestyles, and economic prosperity. However, the controversy was short-lived, and the Compromise appeased both sides for the three following decades.
George, J. & Brown, J. (2007). AP achiever: Advanced placement american history exam preparation guide. McGraw Hill.
The Era of Good Feelings
The Era of Good Feelings was a period of dramatic growth and intense nationalism. The spirit of nationalism was apparent in Supreme Court decisions that established the supremacy of the federal government and expanded the powers of Congress. American interest and power in foreign policy was especially apparent in the Monroe Doctrine. Industrial development enhanced national self-sufficiency and united the nation with improved roads, canals, and river transportation. Forces for division were also at work. The financial Panic of 1819 led to the emergence of new political parties. The Missouri Crisis contributed to a growing sectional split between North and South.
At the end of the 18th century, the United States had few professional writers or artists and lacked a class of patrons to subsidize the arts. But during the decades before the Civil War, distinctively American art and literature emerged. In the 1850s, novels appeared by African-American and Native American writers. Mexican-Americans and Irish immigrants also contributed works on their experiences. Beginning with historical paintings of the American Revolution, artists attracted a large audience. Landscape painting also proved popular. An indigenous popular culture also emerged between 1800 and 1860, consisting of penny newspapers, dime novels, and minstrel shows.